Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera

Written by

Journal of Apicultural Research Vol. 52 (4)
DOI 10.3896/IBRA.
Date September 2013
Article Title

Standard methods for virus research in Apis mellifera


Joachim R de Miranda, Lesley Bailey, Brenda V Ball, Philippe Blanchard, Giles E Budge, Nor Chejanovsky, Yan-Ping Chen, Laurent Gauthier, Elke Genersch, Dirk C de Graaf, Magali Ribière, Eugene Ryabov, Lina De Smet and Jozef J M van der Steen


Honey bee virus research is an enormously broad area, ranging from subcellular molecular biology through physiology and behaviour, to individual and colony-level symptoms, transmission and epidemiology. The research methods used in virology are therefore equally diverse. This article covers those methods that are very particular to virological research in bees, with numerous cross-referrals to other BEEBOOK papers on more general methods, used in virology as well as other research. At the root of these methods is the realization that viruses at their most primary level inhabit a molecular, subcellular world, which they manipulate and interact with, to produce all higher order phenomena associated with virus infection and disease. Secondly, that viruses operate in an exponential world, while the host operates in a linear world and that much of the understanding and management of viruses hinges on reconciling these fundamental mathematical differences between virus and host. The article concentrates heavily on virus propagation and methods for detection, with minor excursions into surveying, sampling management and background information on the many viruses found in bees.


COLOSS, BEEBOOK, honey bee, virus, sampling, purification, assays, standardisation

Full text
Open Access                                                         Online Supplementary Material