Standard methods for nosema research

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Journal of Apicultural Research
Vol. 52 (1)
January 2013
Article Title

Standard methods for nosema research


Ingemar Fries, Marie-Pierre Chauzat, Yan-Ping Chen, Vincent Doublet, Elke Genersch, Sebastian Gisder, Mariano Higes, Dino P McMahon, Raquel Martín-Hernández, Myrsini Natsopoulou, Robert J Paxton, Gina Tanner, Thomas C Webster and Geoffrey R Williams


Methods are described for working with Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in the field and in the laboratory. For fieldwork, different sampling methods are described to determine colony level infections at a given point in time, but also for following the temporal infection dynamics. Suggestions are made for how to standardise field trials for evaluating treatments and disease impact. The laboratory methods described include different means for determining colony level and individual bee infection levels and methods for species determination, including light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular methods (PCR). Suggestions are made for how to standardise cage trials, and different inoculation methods for infecting bees are described, including control methods for spore viability. A cell culture system for in vitro rearing of Nosema spp. is described. Finally, how to conduct different types of experiments are described, including infectious dose, dose effects, course of infection and longevity tests.


Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae, field methods, laboratory methods, sampling methods, infection dynamics, infection level, microscopy, species identification, standardised cage trials, inoculation methods, spore viability, cell culture, infectious dose, dose effects, course of infection, longevity tests, COLOSS, BEEBOOK

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